Investment Decisions

  • By Team Koncept
  • 15 March, 2024
Investment Decisions

Investment Decisions

Table of Content;

1.Net Present Value (NPV) Method

2.Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method:

3. Profitability Index (PI) Method:

4. Payback Period Method:

5. Discounted Payback Period and Payback Reciprocal:

6. Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) Method:

7. Modified NPV and IRR:

8. Capital Rationing:

9. Divisible and Indivisible Projects:

10. Conclusion of Investment Decisions of CA intermedite Financial Management (FM)



Introduction of Investment Decisions of CA intermediate Financial Management (FM):

Capital budgeting, often regarded as the cornerstone of financial decision-making, is the process by which businesses evaluate and select long-term investment projects. It involves assessing the potential returns and risks associated with various investment opportunities to allocate scarce financial resources effectively. In this detailed exploration, we will delve into the intricacies of capital budgeting methods, unveil the underlying formulas, and dissect the decision criteria employed by businesses to navigate the complex landscape of investment decisions.

1. Net Present Value (NPV) Method:

The NPV method calculates the present value of future cash flows generated by an investment project, net of the initial investment outlay.                
If NPV is
+ve Accept the project- increase shareholder’s wealth
-ve Reject the project-decrease shareholder’s wealth
Zero Indifferent-No effect on shareholder’s wealth

CF0 = the initial investment outlay.
CF t = after- tax cash flow at time t
K = required rate of return for project/minimum rate of return to be used as discount rate (WACC)


2. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method:

The IRR method identifies the discount rate at which the NPV of a project equals zero. It represents the project's expected rate of return over its lifespan. The decision rule for IRR is:
  • Accept the project if IRR > Cost of Capital
  • Reject the project if IRR < Cost of Capital


3. Profitability Index (PI) Method:

The PI method calculates the ratio of the present value of cash inflows to the initial investment.
CF0 = Initial Cash Out Flows
NPV = - CF0 + PV of future Cash In Flows
CF0 + NPV = PV of Future Cash In FlowsIf NPV is given, then
Add Initial outlay in NPV to get, PV of Cash inflows.
If NPV is Positive, the PI will be greater than one.
If NPV is Negative, the PI will be Less than one.


4. Payback Period Method:

The payback period method determines the time required for the project's cash flows to recoup the initial investment.
Case I: When Cash inflows are Constant/ equal
Case II: When Cash inflows are unequal
Shorter the PBP, better the project.
PBP does not take into account the time value of money and cash flows beyond the payback period.
The main benefit of the pay-back period is that it is a good measure of project liquidity.


5. Discounted Payback Period and Payback Reciprocal:

The discounted payback period adjusts the payback period formula to consider discounted cash flows, providing a more accurate measure of investment recovery time. Additionally, the payback reciprocal, calculated as the inverse of the payback period, offers insight into the project's annual return relative to the initial investment.
The Payback Reciprocal is considered to be an approximation of the Internal Rate of Return, if:
a) The life of the project is at least twice the payback period, and
b) The Project generates equal amount of the annual cash inflows.

A project with an initial investment of ₹ 50 lakhs and life of 10 years, generates CFAT of ₹10 lakhs per
annum. Its Payback Reciprocal will be 10 lakhs/20lakhs = 20%.



6. Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) Method:

The ARR method determines the average accounting profit generated by an investment project relative to the average investment.
1. It ignores time value of money.
2. It takes into account accounting profits rather than cash flows.


7. Modified NPV and IRR:

Modified NPV and IRR adjust for separate cost of capital and reinvestment rates, providing a more nuanced evaluation of investment projects.
Modified IRR: It is the discount rate at which Modified NPV is Zero.


8. Capital Rationing:

Capital rationing poses a challenge for businesses as they strive to allocate limited funds efficiently. This necessitates a rigorous evaluation of investment projects, emphasizing those with the highest Net Present Value (NPV) or Profitability Index (PI) to optimize shareholder wealth. Balancing financial constraints with strategic objectives is crucial in navigating this complex decision-making process.

9. Divisible and Indivisible Projects:

In the context of divisible projects, allocating funds based on NPV ranking allows for a straightforward decision-making process, maximizing returns within budget constraints. However, with indivisible projects, strategic analysis becomes paramount as optimal NPV may hinge on the combination of projects selected. This necessitates careful consideration of project synergies and trade-offs to achieve the most favorable outcome for the organization.

Conclusion of Investment Decisions of CA intermedite Financial Management (FM)

Capital budgeting is a multifaceted process that demands careful analysis and strategic decision-making. By understanding the various methods, formulas, and decision criteria outlined in this comprehensive exploration, businesses can navigate the complexities of investment decisions with confidence, ultimately driving long-term financial success and shareholder value.
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